Biological diversity. The many and varied forms of life on Earth (collectively known as biota). As well as diversity of species (species diversity), there is also diversity within populations of a single species (genetic diversity) and diversity of ecosystems like seas, grasslands, wetlands, forests and lakes (spatial habitat diversity).

Species diversity in the Arctic is quite low, especially compared with tropical regions. However, genetic diversity is relatively high in Arctic species. This has increased their capacity to adapt to changes in the Arctic environment.

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