INTERACT was proposed by the existing SCANNET network of field stations situated in all eight Arctic countries. The cooperation has a long history especially between the European members, resulting from EU-funding in 2001-2004 within the 5th Framework Programme. However, the bottom-up network has expanded during the last 6 years with new members from Russia and North America to become a true circumarctic network of terrestrial field stations. These developments without resources, together with a greatly increasing demand for information on environmental change in the North as exemplified by IASC activities and also the Arctic Council’s SAON project, require a new initiative with appropriate resources.
This project has a main objective to build capacity for identifying, understanding, predicting and responding to diverse environmental changes throughout the wide environmental and land-use envelopes of the Arctic.
The Consortium as a whole
The consortium is designed to balance and integrate the major activities of research, monitoring and assessment that integrate user requirements to provide a greatly improved understanding of environmental change in the Arctic and its impacts on local and global communities. The inclusion of Station Managers, research experts in technology development, the wider scientific community and major international organisations as well as the educational establishments provides a construct in which all components are truly integrated, complementary and well balanced. Further, the suitability and commitment of the actors has already been demonstrated by the success of the SCANNET Network, that operates INTERACT and many of the infrastructures within it.
Station Managers Forum
The INTERACT project provides a platform for exchange of information between research station managers and other participants. This is done through the Station Managers’ Forum. It is used to provide information from the different Infrastructures to the Network and its external partners and users. The Station Managers’ Forum facilitates knowledge exchange, and collects and disseminates information from participating research infrastructures related to ecosystem monitoring, station management and administration.
The Forum has produced a number of deliverables:
– Station Managers Forum meetings
– Reports concerning ‘Research and Monitoring at INTERACT sites’
– Reports concerning ‘Abilities of the stations within INTERACT’
– Reports concerning ‘Best practises of Station Management and Administration at Arctic Research Infrastructures’
– Interactions with local stakeholder communities
Joint Research Activities
The consortium has identified that major gaps are related to methods for automatic data collection, methods for studies of ecosystem feedback to climate change and methods for coordinated storage of data from many sites. The specialists have operated the Joint Research Activities and in close cooperation with the Station Managers developed and tested techniques for data collection and storage in relevant fields of research that particularly needed improved methodology and observation.
The trans-national access component is crucial to building capacity for research in the European Arctic and beyond. It has given new opportunities to researchers throughout Europe to work in the field in often harsh and remote locations that are generally difficult to access. In return, the input of new researchers has led to cross fertilisation, comparative measurements at different locations and new research directions at the individual infrastructures.
A Trans-national Access Board has ensured that the calls have addressed themes of relevance for (i) the scientific community, i.e. the most important pending science questions to be addressed according to a number of international assessments like SWIPA and ICARP III, (ii) the different stakeholders, and (iii) the network as a whole. In this way the Trans-national Access Board has secured optimal synergies with the networking and joint research activities within the project and relevant actors outside the project.
Work Packages in INTERACT II and III
Work Package 1 (INTERACT II)
Coordination and Management
INTERACT is a large and growing consortium with increasing complexity of operation. It is also playing increasingly important roles in many national and international research and monitoring organizations while contributing significantly to outreach and education. The comprehensive scope and numerous and various activities require effective coordination and management to ensure the successful operation of the consortium and its communication with stakeholders.
The main objectives of this Work Package are to facilitate and ensure:
– the smooth operation of the consortium
– the integration of various work packages to achieve synergy
– the successful and timely completion of the agreed tasks to yield the specified deliverables and reach the agreed milestones on time
– the achievement of innovation and state-of-the-art activities in coordinating and delivering outreach
WP leader: Margareta Johansson
Work Package 2 (INTERACT II)
Scientific coordination, mentoring and education
The overall aim of this work package is to communicate INTERACT activities within and outside the consortium by developing and applying new resources including human resources and resources for education at all levels. The specific aims of this work package are:
To coordinate the communication of the science within the infrastructure to external stakeholders and vice versa, and to foster international collaboration
To promote Arctic and climate change issues in school and university education and to provide appropriate resources
WP leader: Terry Callaghan
Work Package 3 (INTERACT II)
Station Managers Forum
The overall objective is to consolidate, develop and run an expanded Station Managers’ Forum (SMF) of managers of research stations throughout the circumpolar Arctic, in northern countries and adjacent alpine and forest regions for (i) knowledge exchange, (ii) implementation of best practices of station management, (iii) development of improved services for research station users and (iv) development of new technology and methods/procedures relevant for running research stations.
The specific aims of this work package are to:
Facilitate internal knowledge exchange (i) among station managers, (ii) with other partners in INTERACT and (iii) between the SMF and relevant stakeholders, including cooperating partners, international organisations and networks, industry, etc.
Facilitate knowledge exchange across domains and establish links between managers of terrestrial, atmospheric and marine research platforms on management and technology issues.
Improve station management and the services provided to users of research stations by providing relevant thematic courses on practical station management issues and by providing a forum for discussion and knowledge exchange between station managers on management issues.
Improve fieldwork efficiency and safety for users of research stations by producing a common field work planning guide and a common practical field guide for INTERACT stations.
Reduce the environmental impact of research station operations and science activities by developing relevant procedures and technologies between station managers and relevant industries.
Continue the development of the INTERACT Station GIS tool for research station management, with interlinked modules for (i) handling of applications for access to stations by non-TA applicants and successful TA applicants, (ii) presenting station characteristics to users and (iii) storing project metadata to allow dissemination to other repositories and media.
An extensive group of different stakeholders is relevant for the tasks to be accomplished by the SMF and they will be invited to participate in relevant station managers fora. These stakeholders include IASC, European Polar Board, FARO, CAFF/CBMP, AMAP, COMNAP, EU-PolarNet, EuroFleet, IASOA, Mountain Research Initiative, GEO/GEOSS, SIOS, International Permafrost Association, ICOS, ANAEE, Indigenous Peoples Secretariat and relevant commercial companies.
WP leader: Morten Rasch
Work Package 4 (INTERACT II)
The main objective of this work package is to improve the accessibility of data and establish a unified view of the data produced using INTERACT facilities. Specifically, the Data Forum WP aims are to:
- Analyse the current status and identify potential approaches towards a coordinated and unified data management plan and system which provides easy access to INTERACT datasets. The purpose is not to fully implement such a system, but to prepare the ground for such an effort through linkage to relevant international data management frameworks like WMO Information System (serves e.g. GAW and GCW), ICSU World Data System (e.g. certification of data centres, emphasis on long term data preservation procedures), Research Data Alliance (community driven development of best practises and technology) and the combined SAON/IASC Arctic Data Committee. Aligning the data management efforts simplifies integration with the Open Research Data Pilot (OpenAIRE).
- Establish a demonstrator catalogue which provide information on datasets regardless of whether the actual data are freely available. This catalogue will differ from the existing catalogue on research and monitoring since the year 2000, which only provided the topic without any information on existing data sets.
- Link research stations with appropriate observation networks and data repositories where this is lacking by building on INTERACT GIS and INTERACCESS which are innovative and successful tools for collecting and exposing metadata using internationally accepted documentation standards and interfaces (OGC CSW and OAI-PMH)
- Identify gaps and synergies and increase the overall importance of well-structured and coordinated networks for multiple monitoring programmes and research activities.
WP leader: Øystein Godøy
Work Package 5 (INTERACT II)
Giving Access to INTERACT
The main objective of Work Package 5 is to increase societally-relevant key research activities throughout the Arctic and neighbouring alpine and forested regions. This will be achieved by increasing the knowledge of research opportunities and access possibilities for European and third country researchers to 43 state-of-the art terrestrial research and monitoring stations and large research field sites throughout the North. Access will be for conducting high level science either physically or remotely. Overall, 7780 number of days will be offered as Trans-national access during the project’s lifetime of which 11 % is estimated to be Remote Access (RA): we estimate 552 number of users in 276 projects overall from approximately 30 countries (Europe, USA, Canada and Russia), in addition we anticipate to have some users from Third countries. The average length of physical visits per user will be 15 days and 40 days/user group. In addition 29 stations will offer free online access to data sets in Virtual Access. Descriptions of the stations offering TA and VA can be found in the descriptions of WPs 10-11.The specific objectives of this work package are:
- to offer Trans-national Access to 43 research stations ranging from high-Arctic deserts and semi-deserts, through North American, Greenlandic and Siberian tundra and through forests to alpine mountains in central Europe (WP10).
- to extend the research user community of the advanced INTERACT infrastructure by offering Remote Access to 25 research stations. This allows comparative research at several stations simultaneously and consolidates collaboration within science (WP 2) as well as within research station management (WP 3) at the participating stations (WP 10).
- to offer Virtual Access to 29 research stations’ online data sets, 26 stations offer VA with funding requested in this application and 6 stations as in-kind contribution as their data is already available and maintained (WP11).
- to implement an online tool “INTERACCESS” for managing the TA and RA applications, evaluations and granting procedures, as well as the management of users groups and reporting.
to integrate as far as possible the research activities within the user community to address large scale Arctic System questions. This will lead
- to increased societal relevance of the research, gap identification and avoidance of duplicated effort.
- to provide outreach through various modalities.
WP leader: Kirsi Latola
Work Package 6 (INTERACT II)
Rapid response to environmental emergency alerts
The overall main objective of this Work Package is to help protect Arctic and global residents from the hazards of potential future environmental emergencies such as release of radionuclides, contamination events from atmospheric deposition, volcanic ash, extreme climate events including possible severe ozone depletion, as well as spread of pathogens, disease and invasive species.
Specifically, we aim to establish a process starting with alerting research station staff through the Arctic and adjoining territories to possible environmental emergencies via a one-stop-shop, through providing protocols on how to make infrastructure–wide observations and/or sampling, determining how samples should be transported, identifying laboratories to analyse resulting data and/or samples and identifying the pathways to ensure data reach appropriate environmental agencies and government departments that can respond to emergencies based on geographically comprehensive sampling. Finally, we aim to identify how the system developed can be sustained in the long term.
The service we offer is particularly important considering that our sites are located throughout the northern hemisphere’s most remote and environmentally harsh environments where observing power is very low but where the research station staff has access and the expertise and ability to operate in these conditions
WP leader: Alex Bernardova
Work Package 7 (INTERACT II)
Improving and harmonizing biodiversity monitoring
The overall objective of Work Package 7 (WP7) is to test the Freshwater and Terrestrial component of the Arctic Council’s, Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme (CBMP – www.cbmp.is) at INTERACT stations.
The specific aims of the work package are to:
- establish an efficient working interface between CBMP and INTERACT
- test the Arctic Freshwater and Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plans at three locations in the field in accordance with relevant CBMP protocols.
- identify ways in which data generated at INTERACT stations can feed into Arctic Council assessments
- provide an up-to-date publication on Arctic Biodiversity for the Encyclopaedia of Biodiversity, second edition, Volume 1, published by Academic Press
WP leader: Tom Barry
Work Package 8 (INTERACT II)
Developing technology for drones for scaling up from research stations
The main objective of WP 8 is to increase awareness of drone technology and sensors among researchers and research station managers while making industry aware of innovative potential uses requiring drone and sensor development.
The specific aims are to:
- increase knowledge on drone technology and current legislation for use of drones among station managers,
- identify UAV-sensors specifically for arctic research or currently underrepresented in the Arctic and
- produce a best practice scheme for use of drones at arctic research stations.
Ultimately, it is the aim that this cooperation between representatives from science and relevant manufacturers of instruments should lead to new technology set in production.
WP leader: Cecilia Hertz
Work Package 9 (INTERACT II)
Adapting to environmental change
Adapting to environmental change
The overall aim of this WP is to produce an inspirational guide book for research station managers and local communities to develop a deeper mutual understanding of how to work together to build integrated local observation systems enabling local communities to respond to the challenges of present and predicted environmental change. The guide book will include a general section on key steps in the process for developing a dialogue between local communities, researchers and station managers, identifying perceptions of what is driving the need for adaptation, what information is needed to adapt, and how to develop an integrated local monitoring strategy. This general section will be followed by thematic case studies from contrasting communities presented in a standardised format
WP leader: Svein Disch Mathiesen
Work Package 1 (INTERACT III)
The main objectives of this Work Package are to facilitate and ensure:
- the smooth operation of the consortium
- the integration of various work packages to achieve synergy
- the successful and timely completion of the agreed tasks to yield the specified deliverables and reach the agreed milestones on time
- the achievement of significant advances in beyond state-of-the-art activities for ensuring innovation, data accessibility and education (through “watch dog” experts)
WP leader: Margareta Johansson
Work Package 2 (INTERACT III)
Station Managers Forum (SMF)
The main objective of the INTERACT’s Station Manager Forum (SMF) is to foster a culture of cooperation among research stations in an advanced infrastructure community, and between this advanced infrastructure community and scientific communities, industries, local communities and infrastructures in other regions. Specifically, the objectives are to:
- innovate station management to better support excellent research and monitoring and to collect, exchange and refine information needed for operating INTERACT stations as one advanced infrastructure
- support excellent science and innovation addressing INTERACT’s Societal Challenges (SC) by interfacing with JRA’s and TA/RA/VA activities
- integrate new partner stations, their activities and data in the existing advanced community of INTERACT stations
- promote cooperation on infrastructure management and safety with Antarctic, alpine, atmospheric and marine research infrastructure communities
WP leader: Morten Rasch
Work Package 3 (INTERACT III)
Giving Access to the Arctic
The specific objectives and innovations within this work package are to:
- Manage the provision of Trans-National Access to 55 research stations ranging from high-Arctic deserts and semi-deserts, through North American, Greenlandic and Siberian tundra and forests to alpine mountains in central Europe and Asia (WP 10). Transnational Access will target grand challenges with societal relevance (INTERACT SCs, Table 2) in a fully integrated approach (Infrastructure Matrix, Figure 4)
- Extend the TA User Community of the advanced INTERACT infrastructure by offering Remote Access to 33 research stations and Virtual Access to 32 stations (WP11) by utilizing a series of innovations related to TA, RA and VA provision. These innovations leverage the collaboration between the TA/RA/VA Users, infrastructures providing access, INTERACT Station Managers’ Forum and the Joint Research Activities (WP4-9). The innovations also ensure linkages between terrestrial and other domains, and promote free access to multidisciplinary data and observations.
- Extend and refine the on-line application, evaluation and reporting tool “INTERACCESS” and ensure its interoperability with the other INTERACT systems (VA Single-Entry Point, INTERACT GIS, INTERACT website) with new tools, products and services.
- Provide Virtual Access and related data products and services through a second generation INTERACT VA Single-Entry Point.
- Integrate research and create synergies and collaboration within the TA User Community to address large-scale issues that have Arctic and global importance. This will be achieved by utilizing various methods such as joint meetings, webinars, the TINDERACT -tool and various outreach activities. The result will potentially lead to Synthesis Papers in high-ranking scientific journals in collaboration with the stations and INTERACT JRA’s.
- Provide science outreach through advanced use of interactive communication channels and methods, with targeted messages to different audiences.
WP leader: Hannele Savela
Work Package 4 (INTERACT III)
Unpredictable Arctic – extreme weather events
The objective of this work package is to document and improve awareness of the many consequences of extreme weather events in the Arctic that are of importance to ecosystem services, local and global communities, so that appropriate timely responses can be made.
The specific aims are to:
- Document the effects of extreme weather events on rapid changes in biodiversity.
- Identify the societal impacts of extreme weather on local communities through community engagement.
- Evaluate the ability of current state-of-the-art weather predictions to forecast such events.
The WP will also provide guidance on how the INTERACT network can be used to improve weather forecasts and the way they are used in the Arctic and beyond.
WP leader: Jonathan Day
Work Package 5 (INTERACT III)
Connecting the Arctic: Transport and Communication
This work package aims to provide information to reduce barriers for exchange of people and scientific samples across national borders. WP5 will communicate to Arctic policymakers, an assessment and identification of bottlenecks for the free mobility of researchers, their samples and their data based on station managers’ and TA users’ perspectives. This WP will also make recommendations of possible ways in which the implementation of the Agreement on Enhancing International Arctic Scientific Cooperation could be developed and improved for the benefit of international Arctic research. This WP further aims to improve communication from the Arctic region in general but specifically among local communities, research stations and their surroundings while introducing new smart instrumentation possibilities through improved communication.
WP leader: Renuka Badhe
Work Package 6 (INTERACT III)
Climate Action: Making data widely available
In addition to conventional and traditional knowledge, there are many hidden resources on environmental change. These include private photographs, landscape paintings, limited circulation expedition reports, ships’ captains’ log books and harbor master records of harbor ice etc. Often, these resources extend the records on environmental change in the Arctic back in time before satellites and sometimes before research stations were established.
WP6 aims to:
- Discover examples of these old resources in text and/or image format and use breaking science technology to demonstrate some aspects of environmental change over long periods combining this data with conventional data.
- Increase awareness among station managers of ground breaking methods such as machine learning, what they can achieve and the prerequisites for using them.
- Produce a best practice scheme for the use of this methodology at Arctic research stations.
Ultimately, it is the aim that cooperation between representatives from science and relevant manufacturers should lead to new businesses, methods, products and/or technology. This type of information is relevant to industries such as the forest industry, conservation organizations, local and Indigenous communities, national parks, the tourist industry and other stakeholders within the Arctic region not yet aware of this “hidden” data resources available.
WP leader: Maria Erman
Work Package 7 (INTERACT III)
Preparing for a future world: improving education and awareness at all societal levels
The main objectives are
- to develop and deliver educational resources at school and university level in response to needs identified by teachers across the world
- to increase awareness of the general public (including influential people) to Arctic environmental change and its global implications
- to establish a new generation of researchers capable of making high level assessments of environmental change in the Arctic and its global implications.
WP leader: Terry Callaghan
Work Package 8 (INTERACT III)
Cleaner Arctic, cleaner world: documenting and reducing pollution
The main objectives of the work package are to work with station managers (WP2) to identify potential sources of emerging contaminants of concern and reduce their impacts by:
- Identifying and establishing screening monitoring protocols for emerging pollutants and field testing these protocols at INTERACT stations.
- Working with INTERACT station-managers and researchers to promote and support screening monitoring studies through enhanced networking in this important field of work.
- Refining existing systems at INTERACT stations to minimize introduction and use of new chemicals/pollutants of concern.
WP leader: Simon Wilson
Work Package 9 (INTERACT III)
The Arctic Resort: increasing benefits and reducing impacts from developing Arctic tourism
The main objective of this work package is to work with the tourist industry and local and Indigenous Peoples to protect the relative pristine environment while also supporting the local and Indigenous communities to diversify their livelihoods by together developing the Arctic in a sustainable way.
WP leader: Niklas Labba