Definitions of the Arctic vary according to environmental, geographical, political, cultural and scientific perspectives. Some scientists define the Arctic as areas having a high latitude, long winters, short, cool summers,... More The average weather we would expect over a long period of time (seasons, years, decades). Climate varies from place-to-place across the Earth. Climate is determined by long-term (over at least... More Impact Assessment. A collaborative project of the Arctic Council and International Arctic Science Committee, a non-governmental organisation whose aim is to encourage and aid cooperation in Arctic research.... More. Started in 2000, the aim is to gather and assess knowledge about Changes in climate that are driven solely by natural processes such as variation in the Earth's orbit, the sun's energy output, volcanic activity and meteorite impacts. See also Climate change.... More, climate change and increased ultraviolet radiation in the Arctic.