“Snow, Water, Ice, Permafrost is frozen ground that remains at or below zero degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit) for two or more years. It forms in regions where the mean annual temperature is... More in the Arctic” an assessment carried out by Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. One of the working groups of the Arctic Council. Established in 1991. AMAP is responsible for measuring the levels of pollutants in the Arctic, and... More. The third AMAP assessment addressing Definitions of the Arctic vary according to environmental, geographical, political, cultural and scientific perspectives. Some scientists define the Arctic as areas having a high latitude, long winters, short, cool summers,... More The average weather we would expect over a long period of time (seasons, years, decades). Climate varies from place-to-place across the Earth. Climate is determined by long-term (over at least... More issues.