The study of the cycling of chemicals between organisms and the surface environment of the Earth.

The Earth’s surface environment is generally divided into four: the atmosphere (the gases around the planet); the lithosphere (the outer part of the solid Earth); the hydrosphere (that part of the Earth containing water in any of its forms) and the biota (living things). Biogeochemistry is concerned with how matter is transferred between these spheres. See also biogeochemical cycle.

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